Sunday, 13 December 2015

Genus special: Coenonympha (part II)

Second part in the Coenonympha special

Russian heath - Coenonympha leander
Distributed from the Balkan over Turkey to the Caucasus from 500-2000m, from hilly grasslands to subalpine zone.

Macedonia

Armenia

Balkan heath - Coenonympha (leander) orientalis
There are several opinions on the status of this taxon, from being a subspecies of C. gardetta, a subspecies of C. leander to a species on its own. An article debating this can be found here.

Albania

False ringlet - Coenonympha oedippus
A lowland species, mostly found <500m, has declined seriously in Europe. Mostly found in wet grasslands, hence water management probably being one of the main reasons for the decline.


central Europe

Scarce heath - Coenonympha hero
Until the early nineties this species had a population in the south of Belgium. Changes in forest management, water level management, nitrification and maybe climate change have however induced a massive decline in the western distribution of this species so that nowadays - apart from a few populations in the very east of France - it has almost disappeared from France as well.  


France

Large heath - Coenonympha tullia
A species that has declined massively in NW-Europe and has disappeared from Belgium and parts of the Netherlands and northern France. Reasons for decline are probably a combination of nitrification, water level management, climate change,... 
I have only seen it once in northern Austria on a windy day so butterflies were difficult to get close by so I only have this vague picture. A variable species with lots of described local forms. The form depicted here is C. tullia tiphon.

N-Austria

Eastern large heath - Coenonympha (tullia) rhodopensis
The Balkan mountain replacement of previous species and in debate if a species on its own. Subalpine to alpine.

NE Greece

Macedonia

Dusky heath - Coenonympha dorus
To be found in the western Mediterranean area from central Italy over the south of France and Iberia to northwestern Africa.

SE-France

C-Spain

Corsican heath - Coenonympha corinna
Endemic of Corsica and Sardinia, common on the islands.

C-Corsica

Elban heath - Coenonympha (corinna) elbana
Closely related to previous species and nowadays mostly seen as a subspecies of Corsican heath. It is restricted to Elba and some smaller islands but can also be found on the opposing Tuscan coast where I could see the species.

Tuscany, Italia

Coenonympha saadi
A middle eastern specialty. From central Turkey over Transcaucasia into Iran.

C-Armenia



Species fromt the Western Palearctic still missing in this list are mainly far eastern species, island specialties and species from northern Africa. All species I hope to see in the future...

Far east:
- Coenonympha (Triphysa) phryne: from the Crimea eastwards
- Coenonympha (Triphysa) dohrnii: unclear if in Western Palearctic, from eastern slopes of Ural eastwards.
- Coenonympha amaryllis: from southern Ural mountains to the east
- Coenonympha symphyta: endemic of Transcaucasia

Island specialities:
- Coenonympha thyrsis: endemic of Crete

Northern Africa: 
- Coenonympha arcanioides: from N Morocco over the Rif mountains to Tunesia
- Coenonympha vaucheri: high mountain species in Morocco
- Coenonympha (dorus) fettigii: from Morocco to Tunesia 








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